Jackie Chan Is Not Returning…

We shouldn’t get too ahead of ourselves when it comes to Rush Hour 4 and, perhaps to a lesser degree, The Karate Kid 2. Recently, there has been a lot of talk that Jackie Chan and Chris Tucker may finally reunite for another Rush Hour movie. Also, apparently, there has been some talk that a follow-up to his Karate Kid remake is in the works. However, some false information regarding both of these projects has been making the rounds and now, the actor’s representatives have stepped in.

Essentially, according to a letter shared to the official Jackie Chan website, someone has been falsely using the email of Esmond Ren, described as a “motion picture industry professional.” The unidentified individual has been spreading incorrect information relating to staffing cast and crew for these alleged sequels. Now, Chan’s reps are making sure it’s very clear that the martial arts legend has nothing to do with any information being spread around by this particular person. Here’s what the letter had to say about it.

“We have noticed that false information that Mr. Chan would act in the motion pictures Rush Hour 4 and The Karate Kid 2 is spreading through multiple social media platforms, and that certain apparently infringing parties have misappropriated the personal WeChat and email accounts of Mr. Esmond Ren, a motion picture industry professional, to release false information concerning the hiring of the crew, casting, audition and other matters in connection with the pictures Rush Hour 4 and The Karate 2. With respect to the above information, on behalf of Mr. Chan, we hereby declare that any and all such information, as spread by such infringer relating to Mr. Chan providing or about to provide acting services in the motion pictures Rush Hour 4 and/or The Karate Kid 2 is false; any relevant information released by any infringer through appropriating the personal WeChat and email accounts of Mr. Esmond Ren is false, and Mr. Chan does not have anything to do with such released information or the content thereof.”

First of all, anytime someone is misrepresenting themselves in a professional manner as something they’re not, it’s more than unfortunate for those on the receiving end of the wrong information and for those who are being misrepresented. The letter also makes it very clear that this is illegal and that Jackie Chan and his reps will take legal action if necessary. So this could get ugly for whoever is responsible.

Now, for those who were excited about the possibility of either of these movies happening, here’s what this means. Rush Hour 4 and, again, to a lesser degree probably, The Karate Kid 2 could still happen. This just means that any information being spread by this individual relating to the alleged productions is false. It’s entirely possible that there are legitimate actions taking place behind the scenes to make one or, who knows, maybe even both of these things happen. We just have to wait for official word from the studio. Not some sketchy casting email.

Recently, Chris Tucker shared a photo with Jackie Chan on his birthday, with both of them holding up four fingers, which sparked a whole lot of talk about the possibility of Rush Hour 4. Tucker has confirmed publically that the movie is being worked on. So while this letter is definitely an ugly thing, it doesn’t mean we can’t still get excited about the possibility of a Tucker/Chan reunion. The full letter can be found at JackieChan.com.

Topics: Rush Hour 4, Karate Kid 2

Ryan Scott at Movieweb Writer of various things on the internet (mostly about movies) since 2013. Major lover of popcorn flicks. Avid appreciator of James Bond, Marvel and Star Wars. Has a tremendously fat cat named Buster and still buys CDs. I’ve got my reasons.

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The Meaning of Belt Color…

Colored belts represent levels of progress for students of martial arts. The system was pioneered in the 19th century by Dr. Jigoro Kano, considered by many as the father of modern judo. The belt system has since come to be used by other martial arts, including taekwondo and karate. Colors vary between disciplines, and even within disciplines can be different from country to country or club to club; they may also include ranks within colors. But the symbolism of the belts remains the same across disciplines.

White

White belts are typically given to beginner students of the martial arts. White is a symbol of birth and beginning, indicating that the student is just starting to gain knowledge. White belts are used in most martial arts, including karate, taekwondo and judo.

Yellow

A yellow belt symbolizes sunlight, a symbol of new strength and the beginning of new life. This represents the student’s progress as he receives knowledge from his instructor and become stronger and more skilled. The yellow belt is used in karate and taekwondo. It is used for junior judo students — 16 and younger — according to the U.S. Judo Federation, but not for students 17 and older.

Orange

The orange belt also symbolizes the sun. It represents a sun that is growing in power, warming the earth and preparing it for new growth. The student at this stage is preparing for further development. Orange belts are used in both karate and judo.

Green

As a martial arts student improves, he receives a green belt. The green belt represents the growth of a seed that sprouts upward, becoming a plant. Like the sprout, the student is becoming something greater. Green belts can be found in karate, taekwondo and judo.

Blue

A blue belt represents the sky and signifies continued growth. It is used in judo, taekwondo and karate. A student moves upward in his development, just as a plant reaches up into the blue sky as it grows.

Purple

A purple belt student is undergoing change as he advances in his studies and begins to set his sights on the black belt. The purple belt represents this change, symbolizing the sky changing color at dawn. Purple belts are used in both karate and judo.

Brown

Brown represents maturity. Like seeds that turn brown in the harvest season, the student has matured into something new at this stage in his development. The student will begin to see the benefits of his work, like a farmer reaping his crop at harvest. This belt color is given to students in judo and karate.

Red

Red is another representation of the sun — this time representing a close, hot sun. This proximity to the sun represents the student’s detailed knowledge. Judo, karate and taekwondo all use red belts.

Black

A black belt is the highest level of belt in judo, karate and taekwondo — though there may also be levels of black belt. The black belt is the opposite of the white belt, signifying completion and maturity in the student. It is popularly said that ancient martial artists’ white belts would become black with dirt over years of training, but this story is likely just that.

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System & Rank Certification Procedures


The Martial Arts International Federation serves as a registry for official martial arts rank across the globe. When registering new MAIF members who have martial arts rank, it is important to understand the difference between homologation or validation of martial art rank and promotion in martial art rank. A promotion is the awarding of the next higher rank to a member who already has his or her rank certified with the MAIF. It can only be accomplished when the MAIF member fulfills all the requirements for their next promotion in a specific martial art rank system or in a martial art rank system from a recognized martial art organization as determined by the MAIF Technical Committee.

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HOMOLOGATION AND VALIDATION

For students or instructors who wish to join the MAIF and already have martial arts rank, the MAIF rank system provides procedures for homologation and validation. Homologation is the issuance of MAIF credentials for specific martial art rank possessed by a prospective or current member when that rank has been issued by a recognized martial art organization. Validation is the examination of a prospective or current member to obtain MAIF credentials for a martial art rank issued by an unrecognized martial arts organization, or for which no credentials are possessed.

Each procedure, homologation or validation is explained below. These procedures apply to all new members with martial art rank of Brown Belt or higher. New members, with lower ranks may be registered at their current rank with approval of their Instructor.

HOMOLOGATING NEW MEMBERS WITH ACCEPTABLE RANK CREDENTIALSHomologation is the method by which an Instructor can register a new member (Brown Belt or higher) who has proof of rank in the form of a rank card or certificate that is recognized by the Central Technical Committee of the Martial Arts International Federation.

In keeping with the International Standards of Minimum Age Requirements for Dan Grades, the MAIF does require that minimum ages are considered when issuing Homologated Certification for rank issued by other martial art organizations.

The following Minimum Ages are required for dan grade certification in the MAIF:· 16 yrs. old for Shodan, Black Belt, 1st Dan

· 18 yrs. old for Nidan, Black Belt, 2nd Dan

· 20 yrs old for Sandan, Black belt, 3rd Dan

· 25 yrs old for Yondan, Black Belt, 4th Dan

· 30 yrs old for Godan, Black Belt, 5th Dan

· 35 yrs old for Rokudan, Black Belt, 6th Dan

· 40 yrs old for Shichidan, Black Belt, 7th Dan

· 50 yrs old for Hachidan, Black Belt, 8th Dan

· 60 yrs old for Kudan, Black Belt, 9th Dan

· 70 yrs old for Judan, Black Belt, 10th Dan

Note: There are many martial art organizations whose rank credentials are recognized by the MAIF. If the new member has acceptable rank credentials, he or she may have their rank certified in the MAIF at the current martial art rank.

MAIF Rank Homologation will be issued to only MAIF recognized martial art systems.In order for a martial art system to be recognized by the MAIF, all of the following criteria must be met:1. The martial art system’s senior black belts must be current members of the MAIF.

2. The martial art system’s complete curriculum and history must be on file at the MAIF Global Office.

3. The martial art system’s most current roster of instructor / examiners must be on file at the MAIF Global Office.

4. The martial art system’s black belts must be certified with the MAIF (with their personal martial arts “Bio”, photo, copies of all their rank certificates and references on file at the MAIF Office).

5. The senior black belts of each new “applicant system” are required to attend a Seminar, Camp or place and time coordinated through the MAIF Global Office in order to present and demonstrate their system to the MAIF Central Technical Committee for induction into the MAIF Yudanshakai.

To homologate a new member with acceptable rank credentials, an Instructor simply fills out a MAIF Membership/Certification Form, attaches a copy of the new member’s recognized rank card or certificate, and mails this to the MAIF Office for processing along with the annual membership and rank registration fees. If the Instructor is in doubt as to whether a certain rank card or certificate is acceptable, he or she has only to send a photocopy of the card or certificate to the MAIF for determination.

The Instructor will always receive a prompt and courteous reply. A new member who has his or her rank certified will receive a MAIF Membership Card showing his or her current rank, a MAIF Rank Certificate, MAIF Lapel Pin and a MAIF Patch.

VALIDATION OF MARTIAL ART RANKValidation is the method by which an Instructor can register a new member who has no acceptable proof of martial art rank. Instructors and prospective members should understand clearly that when we refer to a new member’s credentials as “unacceptable” there is absolutely no reflection on the member’s technical competence in martial arts, (nor their character). However, the term “unacceptable” merely means that the credentials the member possesses are not issued by a recognized martial art organization.

Validation is also a method by which a new member can be registered at the martial art rank that he or she is best qualified to hold. If the new member has not participated in a nationally, standardized rank system, he or she may not have been promoted to the rank now held by contemporaries in skill, knowledge and experience. Validation is the method for correcting this situation. Validation is the detailed process by which the MAIF examines new members to verify their credentials or to determine the rank they are best qualified to hold. It involves a thorough examination of their martial art knowledge, technical ability, a historical review of their martial art experience, and their service to martial arts. The historical review may go back to their first day of training (and their Instructor) or to the date of their last “acceptable” rank credentials. All new members who do not possess acceptable rank credentials must have their rank validated to be registered with the MAIF holding the rank of Brown Belt or higher. As with MAIF promotions, the member must belong to a MAIF member school or club to be eligible for rank validation.

If the validation is for a Kyu (Brown Belt or below) grade, then the examination must be performed by a certified MAIF Black Belt (and current member of the Federation). If the validation is for a Dan (Black Belt) grade, then the examiner must be a certified MAIF Black Belt who is at least two grades higher than the rank validation level of the new member. The examiner for all validations or promotions must be a Certified Instructor/Examiner of the MAIF. The examiner will utilize the MAIF Request for Validation of Martial Art Rank Form and send it with the individual’s membership application and appropriate fees to the MAIF International Office for processing. The MAIF Office will insure that the forms are properly completed and will forward to the new member (or their Instructor) a MAIF Membership Card, MAIF Rank Certificate, MAIF Lapel Pin and a MAIF Patch.

Note: The MAIF Request for Validation Form has all of the necessary instructions for completion and the current validation fees. Promotions, Homologations or Validations for Martial Art Rank of 5th Degree and higher must be approved by the MAIF Central Technical Committee. Additionally, the MAIF Central Technical Committee has approved the institution of minimal time in grade and age requirements for all MAIF Dan Grade Levels.

Finally, the Martial Arts International Federation does deal in reciprocity. That is, if an organization or country does not recognize MAIF rank, the MAIF will not recognize grades issued by that organization or country. However, if an organization or a country recognizes MAIF certification but does not meet the high international martial art standards, MAIF cannot recognize grades issued by that organization or country.

To register your martial art rank with the Martial Arts International Federation, contact either your registered style or system organization, or the MAIF Global Office at 3816 Bellingham Drive – Reno, NV USA, for an application or use the On-Line Application for MAIF Dan Grade Certification.

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Training Equipment for Mixed Martial…

  1. Sports
  2. Mixed Martial Arts
  3. Training Equipment for Mixed Martial Arts Fighting

By Frank Shamrock, Mary Van Note

Like any sport, Mixed Martial Arts (MMA) requires special equipment, largely to protect yourself during your training sessions. Important supplies and gear that you should gather before starting your MMA training include:

  • Boxing gloves: Essential for working on strikes, such as jabs, hooks, and uppercuts.
  • Handwraps: Good for protecting your hands when training or fighting competitively.
  • Headgear: Used for sparring to protect the skull from harsh blows.
  • Cup: Essential for male MMA fighters.
  • Mouthpiece: Critical for protecting your teeth while competing and training. Try conditioning while wearing a mouthpiece to get used to wearing one.
  • MMA gloves: Necessary for competitions. You should wear MMA gloves during sparring and grappling sessions as well so you can get accustomed to them.
  • MMA shin guards: Helpful for protecting your shins when training or sparring.
  • Stability ball: A great tool for working on your balance and control.
  • Jump rope: Useful for warming up before training and a common tool for MMA practitioners.
  • Thai pads and focus mitts: Good for using with a partner when you want to work on knees, kicks, and other strikes.
  • Kettlebells: A cast iron weight with a handle; a favorite tool among MMA fighters for full-body conditioning.
  • MMA attire: Can be worn inside and outside of the ring and includes T-shirts, hoodies, sweats, and shorts. MMA clothing tells people that you’re living the MMA lifestyle. It’s a conversation starter, and it may just stop someone from trying to push you around and steal your milk money.

    image0.jpg

Most gyms specializing in MMA will have a lot of this equipment. As for schools, they usually suggest that you buy your own handwraps, mouthpiece, cup, and gloves. Look to see whether a school you’re interested in has some of the listed equipment available. A good school or gym has plenty of MMA gear and safety equipment (think mats and first aid kits).

image1.jpg

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Strength Training for Mixed Martial…

Q: What type of strength training would you do for mixed martial arts?

A: That could be the subject of an entire book, but I’ll give the overall picture so you can get started. Here’s how I’d steer the training process:

1) Get a structural balance evaluation, as described in the level 1 and 2 practical portions of the Poliquin International Certification Program. That will identify priorities in training. To find a certified strength coach in your area, go to my Web site, www.CharlesPoliquin.com.

2) Get an overall view of the different types of training, and rate them on a scale of 1 to 10 on their bioenergetics. For example, grappling training is far more demanding than boxing. That will help you decide how to organize your weekly training schedule.

3) Schedule strength-training sessions based on overall training demands. High-threshold motor units should be trained first during the day. So, for example, you would do Olympic lifts in the morning and mat work in the evening.

4) There are many ways to schedule the strength training. I think for most MMA athletes the best approach is five days a week with only two exercises per session. For example, alternate thick-handle neutral-grip pullups with standing one-arm thick-dumbbell overhead presses.

5) Training for relative strength should be your primary concern, unless you’re asked to move up a weight class. Then functional hypertrophy becomes the quality to train.

6) Do thick-bar work when you train your upper body; that will ensure that the strength you build in the gym transfers to the mat.

7) Finish each session with forearm and grip work. Make sure you vary it a lot: gripping, radial flexion, ulnar flexion, etc.

By following those guidelines, you should derive the maximum benefit from strength training for the mixed martial arts.

Q: Where do you get your workout stuff? Is it all yours?

A: No, not at all. I’ve had many mentors who taught me very effective training methodology, either through their writings or through private teaching sessions. Long before the use of anabolic steroids became a common shortcut in the iron game, legendary Canadian strongman Doug Hepburn was clearly demonstrating that the optimal mix of principle-based training, nutrition, adequate recovery and drive can help you achieve Herculean levels of strength. For example:

1) Concentrate on two lifts per day. The analogy that Steven Covey uses in his book First Things First is,put the big rocks in the jar first. If you get strong on two basic lifts per workout, plenty of strength gains will follow. As often as permissible, I set up antagonistic pairs together, such as pullups and overhead presses. All the exercises Hepburn recommended were most-bang-for-your-buck moves, such as deadlifts, squats and presses. No triceps kickbacks here.

2) Do lots of sets for maximum strength. Do only a few things, but do them extremely well. Ask any real expert on strength training; it’s a very basic principle.

Two years ago I gave an invitation-only sport-specific strength-training program at Level 5 PICP coach Roberto Sabatini’s gym in Quebec, and I had Pierre Roy, the best lifting coach in North America, give a guest lecture. Dr. Espen Artzen, Norway’s first Level 4 PICP coach, asked Pierre, “What are the three most important keys to success in strength training?” Pierre’s answer was as follows: One, hard work; two, hard work; three, hard work. The strongest always have the biggest work capacity.

If you ever have a chance to look into the details of Doug Hepburn’s methodology for increasing maximum strength, you’ll see that it’s centered on lots of basic work.

3) Excite the nervous system first, and then do functional hypertrophy. Many of my successful colleagues use a variation of that approach.

Using Hepburn’s methodology and adding some refinements, such as exact prescriptions for exercise tempo and rest intervals, you could do a torso workout like the sample in the box below left. A sample lower-body workout appears above.

4) Use split routines. I used to find that total-body workouts were just too draining to recover from. I started to make progress myself only when I split my training up following Doug Hepburn’s or Anthony Dittilo’s methods. Oddly enough, “strength journalists” are pushing for total-body training. If you get to meet those who write that, however, you’ll discover that their best bodypart is greasy hair.

I was able to train a host of Olympic medalists by using two key lifts per day, multiple training sessions per week. Whether it was Adam Nelson or Pierre Lueders, they all used split routines. What I added to the fundamentals of the Hepburn system were standardized rest intervals and tempo—making it even better.

My colleague Christian Thibaudeau is probably one of the few Internet writers to sport a physique with strength to match—and he is a split-routine user. Success leaves clues.

5) Take your time. Doug Hepburn preached taking your time to adjust the load upward, which is something I strongly endorsed. Pierre Roy taught me the same thing. Want to increase your squat? Take a weight that will have your spleen coming out of your left eye socket on eight sets of two. Then at every successive workout try to add one rep per set to one set. Once you can complete 8 x 3, then it’s time to increase the weight.

The human body has not dramatically evolved in the last 50 years. Basic hard work still prevails. There are no shortcuts.

Editor’s note: Charles Poliquin is recognized as one of the world’s most suc-cessful strength coaches, having coached Olympic med-alists in 12 different sports, including the U.S. women’s track-and-field team for the 2000 Olympics. He’s spent years researching European journals (he’s fluent in English, French and German) and speaking with other coaches and scientists in his quest to optimize training methods. For more on his books, seminars and methods, visit www.CharlesPoliquin.net. Also, see his ad on page 193. IM

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The History of the Belt…

Martial Arts Belts

Grading and ranking in martial arts varies from skill to skill and from style to style although for all of them it defines the degree of the disciple’s knowledge. The general rule is that the knowledge a master has is formed into a system and certain style in order to transfer it to his disciples. The history of ranking is very long and it has been following the appearance of particular skills, and the current ranking system (belt, Dan) which appeared shortly after World War II has spread quickly worldwide and was accepted in almost all of styles.

The belt, the Dan- what do these terms mean for martial arts?
The history of the belt is very interesting. In ancient China, the belt was, in the beginning, used for suspending trousers, but later it was also used for inserting some valuable items or weapons for personal defense. Different colors of the belt showed the social order, clan or region the wearer belonged to. Moreover, the color of belt could also show which style of martial arts the man practiced as the colors differed from school to school. Ranking at schools (styles) in China followed the pattern the beginner, the more advanced disciple (assistant) and the master. Such type of ranking is also present in some schools nowadays. Between the two world wars Japan used the system of ranking in which the traditional symbolic of colors was used: white for beginners and black for masters. These colors symbolized the colors of life and death. The white color, in contrast to the western concept, is the color of death so that the white kimono and the white belt symbolized that the disciple comes to sacrifice himself and rejects his previous life and therefore accepts a more sophisticated understanding of life. When the disciple gains the master belt (in black colour) it shows that he has won the fear from death ; that’s why his attitude to life and death is something natural and he accepts it without any fear.There has been a rule that when the disciple puts on the belt once, he doesn’t take it off throughout all his practice. The kimono is changed because the disciple grows and becomes stronger as well as it gets ruined by frequent training. But what happens with the belt? What makes the belt change the colour and what meaning does it have? Well, the belt is white in the beginning, but through long training it becomes yellowish (titled – Mudansha) from the disciple’s frequent sweating.

As practice was held in nature the belt would become greenish from sweat and grass and later purple brown from dust and soil while practicing in the yards of a certain school. By the longtime training the belt got soaked with sweat, grass, soil, dust and even with the disciple’s blood becoming dark brown i.e.dirty black (titled – Yudansha). If we have the knowledge how the colors of the belt were made and how they changed from white to black, we can understand the link between a color and the length of the disciple’s practice and development.

Different schools or styles have different belt colors to rank the disciple’s development from the beginner to the master as well the time intervals necessary for passing from one level of knowledge to the higher one. However, it’s common to all schools that the color of the belt (KJU) has the meaning of ranking and grading the disciple’s knowledge (create – Mikonosuke Kawaishi master of jujutsu and judo – Paris 1948, and master Gichin Funakoshi – 1953.

The beginner’s white color is sometimes exchanged with yellow, and somewhere else with orange, while in a higher degree of knowledge, it can be replaced with green or blue, afterwards with brown (red and purple in some styles) and finally with the master’s black color. It is also common in almost all the arts that the necessary time span between the beginner’s to the master’s degree of knowledge is nearly the same, about four years. For example, in karate (Shoto-kan, Goyu-ryu, Wado-ryu, Oyama-ryu and Shito-ryu) the necessary time interval from the white to the black belt is at least four years to maximum four and a half years. The only exception is the traditional style Uechi-ryu which requires five years’ practice from the white to the black belt. Such time interval is also needed in some traditional Kung-fu, Ju jutsu or Brazilian jiu jitsu style (with obligation competition). In Judo the average interval from the white to the black belt is four years. Masters wear the black belt from 1st to 5th Dan, the white-red from 6th to 8th and the red one from 9th to 11th Dan.The red color symbolizes the color of blood, an it is considered that a master holding such a high title in his practice should have spelled lots of sweat or even “blood“. Ranking in belts was introduced in some kung fu schools in 1974 (wu shu -1993) implying that there is an average time span between the beginner to the master of three and a half years. The master title Dan is called Toan (duan) in Chinese styles. In Korean styles Tae kwon do, Tang soo do, Hwa rang do and Hap ki do, it normally takes four years from the first degree- the white belt to achieve the master of the skill- the black belt. The exception in martial arts is Savate ( the French boxing) where the ranking from the beginner to the master is not in the color of the belt, but in the color of the gloves; so that the beginner wears blue gloves,the competitors who are the masters of the skill have the silver ones , but the supreme knowledge is shown with masters who either wear silver or honorary platinum gloves. The time needed to reach the level of the master of the silver glove is three and a half years. Before World War II savate practitioners used to wear the belts as well as some boxers before World War I. Nowadays boxers,kick boxers, savate fighters and fighters in UFC (MMA) compete for the world champion’s belt, which is somehow a tribute to tradition. Beginners in wrestling and boxing also need about 4 years of practice to achieve the master rank.

What is the meaning of DAN ranking in martial arts? (create Jigoro Kano -1886)
In JAPAN -“Jiki dan“ would, in free translation, mean the personal consultation with the master, therefore, the sign Dan has the meaning of time interval which the master of martial arts, the wearer of the black belt spends in active training or knowledge transfer with the consultation of his tutor as the older and more experienced one whose knowledge he is going to inherit. It is interesting that the difference in ranking from the master of the black belt “the 1st Dan“ to the top master skill of “the 10th Dan“ is small , so that the expected time interval between the 1st Dan and the 2nd Dan is two to three years. For the third Dan it takes two, or three years in some disciplines. After getting the third Dan you need three or four years to reach the 4th Dan. The 5th Dan implies about 17 years of continuous training and for the 6th Dan you should have 22 to 25 years’ practice. The 7th Dan is obtained after 35 years of practice, and the 8th Dan requires 40 years of frequent exercise, studying and teaching the skill. The master of the skill is then about 55 years old ( there are subtle differences regarding the style). The 9th Dan is given to the masters more than 60 years old and still active in practicing, studying and teaching the skill of fight. Finally, the 10th Dan is obtained by the masters whose age passes over the age of 69 presuming that they are still active in training, studying and transferring the knowledge of the martial arts. There are only 9 Dans in some Korean styles.

The 11th and the 12th Dans are exceptional and only Judo (and traditional Ju-jucu, Aikido, some traditional styles both in China and Korea) have them, but these titles of judo masters are mainly theoretical. To understand their ranking better, one should know a little about Zen philosophy. For example, the classification in twelve Dan master titles represents the idea of one year interval. In Japan philosophy , the famous Zen master Hyakujo ( Pui Chang-726-814) declared the proverb: „A day without work is a day without food“. It would figuratively mean that the master should practise and progress every day, every month, all the year and permanently all his life. Moreover, the theoretical title of the master of the 12th Dan is based on Zen philosophy. It is interesting that the master wears the white belt, which is related to closing the circle ( such a circle is called samsara in Zen philosophy), and, thus, completing one cycle. In fact it is a kind of a trap of ancient masters (J.Kano?) because Zen philosophy knows neither the end nor the beginning. In other words, the more a master knows about the skill, the more he becomes aware of his lack of knowledge. That’s why enlargement turns into reducement. Moreover, no master of any martial arts can say he has all the answers, which means that a cycle can’t be finished because it is endless. The end is only and exclusively- the death (J.Kano only has 12th). It is also interesting that many folk forms of wrestling have a belt in the equipment so that the common technique of knocking down the rival is linked to ti the technique of catch for the belt (European-for the belt, Glima, Japanese- Sumo, etc.). Lots of wrestling masters decorate their belts in a special way. The belts in Sambo skill are the same as in Judo to the black belt, then comes the black one with the color of the national flag, after which follow the so called international belts- in the colors of the medals: bronze, silver and gold, following on top by the gold belt with the color of the national flag. The belt is also worn in certain folk dance fighting skills as Brazilian Capoeira. In Capoeira, the practitioners achieve the master title cordaose (corda- lace), and they use the belt to show which region they come from or as an ornament to tie the laces on. Some old masters of martial arts in Burma ( Bando, Burman boxing and Thaing skills) tattoo the degrees of their knowledge on the body of the practitioner, as well as jn India, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos and somewhere in Malaya.

On the other hand, with the Sikhs in India , the mastership in martial arts is shown by the turban, although not by its color but by the size, weight and decorations on it. The belt is also worn in Japan fencing skill – Kendo (Tare) and archery- Kyudo. The masters who have got the master title in at least three martial disciplines or sports are called the masters of mixed martial arts, and the experts among them who have published research papers in several fighting skills or sports are called the experts for mixed martial sciences. According to some sources there are about thirty such experts in the world. It is interesting that among the leading experts for mixed martial sciences,besides men,there are also a few women and disabled persons. They are mostly unknown to the general public.

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